08 October, 2013

杰夫·贝索斯:20条最聪明的创业道理

说起电子商务的兴起,亚马逊曾是那个骚动年代的代表。2000年之际,围绕着亚马逊的不同论调在长达1年零2个月的时间里交替上演,一时“亚马逊创始人当选时代周刊年度人物”,另一时“分析师担心马逊即将破产”。抛开商业欺诈,这在美国商业史上实属罕见。

13年后,亚马逊依旧保持着蓬勃的发展势头。而且,今天的亚马逊已经远远超越了它起家时的线上图书销售模式,成为全球领先的多元化电子商务巨头。它的股价现在是互联网泡沫最盛时期的三倍。

这一切归功于亚马逊家古灵精怪的CEO杰夫·贝索斯。他开创的企业文化不仅有别于当下的大多数商界领袖,甚至可以说与主流小伙伴们背道而驰。尽管如此,贝索斯的经典言论还是为人们津津乐道。以下是贝索斯这些年最著名的20条创业经验谈。

1、“All businesses need to be young forever. If your customer base ages with you, you’re Woolworth’s.”所有的企业都需要永葆青春。如果你的客户群跟着你一起变老,你就会重蹈Woolworth的覆辙。

2、“There are two kinds of companies: Those that work to try to charge more and those that work to charge less. We will be the second.”这个世界有两类公司:一类总想着如何提价,一类总想着怎么降价。我们是后一种。

3、“Your margin is my opportunity.”帮客户赚到了就是我们的机会。

4、“If you only do things where you know the answer in advance, your company goes away.”如果你只做已经知道了答案的事情,那你的公司就离倒不远了。

5、“We've had three big ideas at Amazon that we've stuck with for 18 years, and they’re the reason we’re successful. Put customer first. Invent. And be patient.”亚马逊能坚持18年是因为我们有三个重要信念,它们也是我们能成功的原因。第一,客户第一;第二,创新;第三,耐心。

6、“I very frequently get the question: 'What's going to change in the next 10 years?' And that is a very interesting question; it's a very common one. I almost never get the question: 'What's not going to change in the next 10 years?' And I submit to you that that second question is actually the more important of the two -- because you can build a business strategy around the things that are stable in time. ... [I]n our retail business, we know that customers want low prices, and I know that's going to be true 10 years from now. They want fast delivery; they want vast selection. It's impossible to imagine a future 10 years from now where a customer comes up and says, 'Jeff I love Amazon; I just wish the prices were a little higher,' [or] 'I love Amazon; I just wish you'd deliver a little more slowly.' Impossible. And so the effort we put into those things, spinning those things up, we know the energy we put into it today will still be paying off dividends for our customers 10 years from now. When you have something that you know is true, even over the long term, you can afford to put a lot of energy into it.”我经常会被问到:未来10年有什么变化?这个问题有趣且大众化。我几乎从来没被问过:未来10年有什么不会改变?我告诉你,后一个问题实际上更重要,因为恒定不变的东西才能给你的企业发展策略提供依据。。。在我们零售业,你知道客户想要的是永远是低价,而且10年以后他们这个要求还是不会变。他们要物流更快,要选择更多。想象10年以后一个客户过来跟你说,“杰夫,我爱亚马逊,但我希望你们价格再提高一点。”这可能吗?当然不可能!所以我们就要把精力投入到这里,做各种尝试和努力,你要知道今天在这个方面的投入10年以后仍然管用,仍然可以给我们的客户带来益处。所以如果你发现了一个恒定的不因时间而改变的商业道理,为它花再多的精力都是值得的。

7、“If you’re not stubborn, you’ll give up on experiments too soon. And if you’re not flexible, you’ll pound your head against the wall and you won’t see a different solution to a problem you’re trying to solve.”如果毅力不够,你会过早放弃有价值的尝试;如果灵活度不够,你会头撞南墙还找不到问题的解决方案。

8、“Any business plan won’t survive its first encounter with reality. The reality will always be different. It will never be the plan.”任何商业计划在第一次实践检验中都难逃一死,现实永远出乎你的意料,实际不按你的计划出牌是正常的。

9、“In the old world, you devoted 30% of your time to building a great service and 70% of your time to shouting about it. In the new world, that inverts.”过去,30%的时间用于开发新产品/服务,70%的时间为它做宣传。但现在这个比例颠倒了。

10、“We've done price elasticity studies, and the answer is always that we should raise prices. We don’t do that, because we believe – and we have to take this as an article of faith – that by keeping our prices very, very low, we earn trust with customers over time, and that actually does maximize free cash flow over the long term.”我们做过价格弹性调查,答案总是建议我们要提价。但我们就是不提价,因为我们相信而且将之奉为真理,只有把价格压到很低很低,才能赢得长期的客户信任,这能使长期自由现金流得到最大化。

11、“The framework I found, which made the decision [to start Amazon in 1994] incredibly easy, was what I called a regret minimization framework. I wanted to project myself forward to age 80 and say, ‘OK, I’m looking back on my life. I want to minimize the number of regrets I have.’ And I knew that when I was 80, I was not going to regret having tried this. I was not going to regret trying to participate in this thing called the Internet that I thought was going to be a really big deal. I knew that if I failed, I wouldn't regret that. But I knew the one thing I might regret is not ever having tried. I knew that that would haunt me every day.”我发现一个非常简单的决策机制,它让我在1994年果断决定开创亚马逊,我把这套机制称为“最少后悔的决策机制”。当我80岁回忆一生时,我希望令我后悔的事情越少越好。我不后悔进入互联网行业。我知道就算失败了,我也不会后悔。反之,会让我后悔的一件事情就是如果我没有尝试。如果那样,我会每天魂不守舍地想着这件事。

12、“We innovate by starting with the customer and working backwards. That becomes the touchstone for how we invent.”创新是从客户角度出发倒逼自己工作改进的过程。这一条是我们创新的心得。

13、“When [competitors are] in the shower in the morning, they’re thinking about how they’re going to get ahead of one of their top competitors. Here in the shower, we’re thinking about how we are going to invent something on behalf of a customer.”早上洗澡的时候,我们的竞争对手在想,怎样才能超过某一个头号竞争对手。而我所想的是,怎样才能从客户角度出发开发出新产品或服务。

14、“A company shouldn't get addicted to being shiny, because shiny doesn't last.”一个企业不应该沉迷于自己的光芒,因为光芒都是不能持久的。

15、“I think frugality drives innovation, just like other constraints do. One of the only ways to get out of a tight box is to invent your way out.”我认为节俭能推动创新,其他约束机制也能达到这个目的。逃出收紧的盒子有为数不多的几种办法,其中一个就是开辟逃生的新路。

16、“If you double the number of experiments you do per year, you’re going to double your inventiveness.”如果你把每一年的尝试增加一倍,你就能让自己的创造力翻一倍。

17、“If you never want to be criticized, for goodness’ sake don’t do anything new.”如果你太害怕被批评,拜托,创新这条路不适合你。

18、“If you’re long-term oriented, customer interests and shareholder interests are aligned.”如果你能将目光放长远,你就会发现客户的利益和股东的利益是一致的。

19、“Invention requires a long-term willingness to be misunderstood. You do something that you genuinely believe in, that you have conviction about, but for a long period of time, well-meaning people may criticize that effort. When you receive criticism from well-meaning people, it pays to ask, ‘Are they right?’ And if they are, you need to adapt what they’re doing. If they’re not right, if you really have conviction that they’re not right, you need to have that long-term willingness to be misunderstood. It’s a key part of invention.”创新需要甘愿被长期误解的忍耐力。做一件你真心实意抱有信念的事情,一段时间你总会收到善意的批评指责。面对善意的批评,很有必要问一下自己,“他们骂得对吗?”如果对,要接受批评的建议并依此改进。如果不对,而且你坚信自己是正确的,那你必须要拥有强大的甘愿被长期误解的承受力。这是创新的一个关键。


20、“You want to look at what other companies are doing. It’s very important not to be hermetically sealed. But you don’t want to look at it as if, ‘OK, we’re going to copy that.’ You want to look at it and say, ‘That’s very interesting. What can we be inspired to do as a result of that?’ And then put your own unique twist on it.”你要适度关注同行的动静。封闭化千万要不得。关注别的公司并不是要抄袭它们的做法,而要这样想,“嗯,有点意思。我们能从中获得什么启发?”接下来你要从启发中寻找自己独特的见解。